- Ալեքս Գևորգյան
- Ռուզաննա Տոգրամաջյան.
- Ասյա Բեկլարյան
- Օլգա Ալեքսանյան
- Հայկ Հայրիյան
- Ալիսա Հովսեփյան
- Տոնոյան Արեգ
- Վալերիկ Հայրապետյան
- Ալբերտ Հովհաննիսյան
- Արեն Մեհրաբյան
- Արև Ավետյան
- Ահարոն Կիրիլով
- Ջոն Պողոսյան
- Էվելինա Հակոբյան
- Մարի Մուղդուսյան
- Էլեն Շահվերդյան
- Էլիզա Հակոբյան
- Նատալի Տագեսյան
- Գոռ Գրիգորյան
- Հասմիկ Մանվելյան
- Նարե Մելքոնյան
- Մանե Սարգսյան
- Ալեքս Գանջալյան
- Միլենա Կարապետյան
The story of street art
Modern graffiti began in big cities in the United States in the 1970s. In New York, young people wrote their names, or ‘tags’, in pen on walls around the city.
One of the first ‘taggers’ was a teenager called Demetrius. His tag was TAKI 183. He wrote his tag on walls and in stations in New York. Other teenagers saw Demetrius’s tag and started writing their tags too. Soon, there were tags on walls, buses and trains all over New York.
Then, some teenagers started writing their tags with aerosol paint. Their tags were bigger and more colourful. Aerosol paint graffiti became very popular in the 1970s and 1980s. It appeared on trains, buses and walls around the world.
In the 1990s and 2000s, a lot of graffiti artists started painting pictures. Some artists’ pictures were about politics. Other artists wanted to make cities beautiful and painted big, colourful pictures on city walls.
Graffiti in galleries
In some countries, writing or painting on walls is a crime. Sometimes, graffiti artists have problems with the police. In other countries, artists can draw and paint in certain places. For example, in Taiwan, there are ‘graffiti zones’ where artists can paint on walls. In São Paulo in Brazil, street artists can paint pictures on walls and houses. Their pictures are colourful and beautiful. Some tourists visit São Paulo just to see the street art!
In Bristol in the UK, there is a street art festival in August every year. Artists paint all the buildings in a street. Lots of people come to watch the artists and take photos. You can see exhibitions of street art in some galleries too. There have been exhibitions of street art in galleries in Paris, London and Los Angeles.
Who are the artists?
Some street artists have become famous. Here are three stars of the street art world:
- Os Gêmeos are twin brothers from São Paulo. They paint big, colourful pictures of people on buildings. In 2007, they painted a castle in Scotland!
- Blek le Rat is from Paris. He is famous for painting pictures of homeless people in big cities.
- Faith47 is from Cape Town in South Africa. She paints big, colourful pictures of people and animals. She likes painting in different places and you can find her work on pavements, postboxes, buses and, of course, on walls!
The future of street art
Many street artists use the internet to look at photos of street art from around the world. They communicate with other artists online and share ideas. Some street artists are famous and you can see their pictures in galleries. We don’t know about the future of street art, but it is here to stay for sure!
ShowCheck your understanding: matching
ShowCheck your understanding: true or false
Worksheets and downloads
Homework is one of the least interesting tasks for students. They tend to avoid writing homework assignments because they are repetitive and boring. Exams are less stressful because they come occasionally and remain for a week or so. Home tasks are repetitive and monotonous. Students hate to attempt these assignments because they do not have enough time to give to each subject and assignment.
From a student’s point of view, home tasks are unnecessary. From a teacher’s point of view, these tasks are important to help the students revise the concepts taught in class and perform better at the subject.
This article talks about the advantages and disadvantages of home assignments for students. Everything has good and bad things about it. Home tasks have their good and bad sides as well. Research shows that students should have two hours of studying at home after the school assignments during high school. The amount of home tasks has increased greatly since the past two decades. This makes it difficult for students to cope up with. Average amount of home tasks is perfectly fine for the students.
Below are the pros and cons of home task assignments
- It helps the students improve their understanding of the subject. They can develop a better understanding of the subject and its applications when they attempt assignments on their own
- Students who have trouble in grabbing the concepts will learn better when they attempt the assignment
- It will help them revise the concepts they read in school
- It motivates them to take initiative and carry out research to attempt the home task
- It is a good way to prepare for exams and tests. They will practice the assignment and get prepared for the exam
Even though there are many advantages of home tasks, but they can have some drawbacks as well if in excess amount
- Students cannot take time out to dedicate to each assignment
- They do not find time for their other activities and extracurricular tasks
- They do not have enough free time to learn and develop their personal skills
- Students who have excess home work may feel anxiety and stress if they cannot complete the paper on time
- It can be challenging for parents to sit with students and help them out in their academic tasks
- It may make the student hate the subject itself
There is a longstanding tradition of instructors assigning homework to students as a means to further their education. It is generally accepted that homework helps students improve their grades and pass courses based on the measured improvement that comes from homework assignments. But for many decades there have been a growing number of detractors who say homework as a tool for learning is outdated and may actually be causing more harm than good. Here are some of the pros and cons:
Homework is viewed as especially helpful to students who have trouble with lessons in class. The additional work supplements their learning and increases their chances of passing standardized tests, where before their success would be measured only by their performance in class.
Those who insist school homework is harmful believe that there are some factors that aren’t considered. For one, parents and families are asked to be active when it comes to student homework, but for some families this simply isn’t an option. Another factor that isn’t considered is that some students don’t have resources such as internet or computer access to complete some assignments. In both these cases, it is common for students to fall behind in class.
There is also the danger that students will often grow tired of seemingly meaningless work and will eventually ignore assignments and fall behind. Students who find homework assignments too difficult are also in danger of failing since they are often discouraged from taking initiative and seeking help.
Lastly, school homework is rarely corrected quickly enough to reinforce classroom lessons. Because of this, students actually start losing interest and take assignments less seriously.
After hearing the pros and cons of assigning students homework, the issue may seem even more complicated than before. Perhaps the solution rests somewhere in the middle. Educators could take a more balanced approach, where the time spent on homework aligns with the student’s grade level or age. But this approach also requires that the assignments be relevant to the core concepts learned in class. No matter which direction we go, it is clear the debate will go on for years to come.
Present perfect –
Affirmative, negative, questions
- Present perfect simple – exercises
- Present perfect exercises
- Present perfect: have / has
- Present perfect – multiple choice
- Present perfect
- Negative / question
- Present perfect – exercises
- The present perfect tense
- Questions – present perfect
- Present perfect – game
When Is Easter 2023? | How Is Easter’s Date Determined?
Why does Easter change every year?
Easter 2023 will be observed on Sunday, April 9. The most important Christian holiday, Easter is a “movable feast.” Why does it change every year? What are the commonest and rarest Easter dates? How is the date determined? Where did the word “Easter” come from? Find answer to these questions on our everything-Easter page.
When Is Easter 2023?
This year, Easter Sunday will be observed on Sunday, April 9. This is based on the Gregorian calendar. However, note that many Eastern Orthodox churches follow the Julian calendar rather than the Gregorian. In 2023, Eastern Orthodox Easter will take place on Sunday, April 16 (Julian calendar date converted to the Gregorian calendar).
|Year||Easter Sunday |
|Eastern Orthodox Church |
(Julian calendar date converted to Gregorian)
|2023||April 9||April 16|
|2024||March 31||May 5|
|2025||April 20||April 20|
|2026||April 5||April 12|
Is Easter Always in March or April?
Easter is a “movable feast,” so it doesn’t happen on the same date from year to year. In the Gregorian calendar, it is always observed on a Sunday between March 22 and April 25. However, in the Eastern Orthodox church, the observance of Easter can occur between April 4 and May 8.
What Is the Most Common Easter Date?
Over a 500-year period (from 1600 to 2099 AD), it just so happens that Easter will have most often been celebrated on either March 31 or April 16.
What is the Most Unusual Easter Date?
According to long-term averages, the most unusual Easter date is March 22. The second place goes to April 24 and third place goes to March 23.
Do you celebrate Easter? If so, what do you do? What’s your favourite part of the Easter holiday? If not, what do you know about this holiday.
Play some word games to learn and practise Easter vocabulary. … the worksheet about Easter and complete the exercises to help you practise your English!
Comparative and superlative adjectives
Sophie is working in Rome this week. Oliver, Alfie and Daisy have decided to eat out tonight.
When we want to compare two or more things, we can change the form of adjectives by adding –er or –est. We can also use extra words like more or most and expressions like not as … as.
Here are some examples:
I think you’re taller than me. (tall)
She’s the tallest in the group. (tall)
The pizzas in La Bella Napoli are better than the ones in Pietro’s. (good)
It was the best pizza I’ve ever had! (good)
People say Bioshock is a more exciting game than Skyrim. (exciting)
Grand Theft Auto is the most exciting video game. (exciting)
Mmm, I don’t quite see what the rule is here.
With most one-syllable adjectives, we add –er or –est, and with most adjectives with two syllables or more, we add more or (the) most. In comparatives, we also use than before the second thing which is compared, if it is mentioned.
La Bella Napoli is nearer than Pietro’s. (near)
It’s not the cheapest restaurant though. (cheap)
With one-syllable adjectives ending in vowel + consonant, remember to double the final consonant before –er/–est.
big → bigger → biggest
If the adjective ends in –e, just add –r or –st.
large → larger → largest
So what are the exceptions, apart from good → better → best?
Other exceptions are bad → worse → worst and far → further/farther → furthest/farthest.
They use the worst cheese.
What about adjectives ending in –y, like crazy? My brother is crazier than me.
Yes, that’s correct. With adjectives ending in y, you change the y to i and add er/ est.
lucky → luckier → luckiest happy → happier → happiest
They’ve got the friendliest waiters!
With most adjectives with typical adjective endings, and with two or more syllables, you use more/most + adjective.
They do the most disgusting pasta I’ve ever tasted.
What other ways of comparing things are there?
We often use not as … as.
I’m not as tall as you. (= I’m smaller than you)
Maybe the pizza at La Bella Napoli isn’t as good as I remember.
And what about less and least?
Yes, less and least are also ways of comparing things. They are used more in writing.
It is less cold in the north of the country than in the south. (the north is warmer, but both north and south are cold)
Of the four participants, Bill is the least experienced. (the other three have more experience)
OK, this isn’t as hard as I thought. I think I’ve got it, more or less.
Check your grammar: true or false – comparatives and superlatives
Check your grammar: gap fill writing – comparatives and superlatives
Check your grammar: multiple choice – comparatives and superlatives
Worksheets and downloads
Which meal do you think is tastier, fish and chips or pizza? Where do you get the best pizza where you live?
The Past Continuous
First of all, Mother is a word which fills everyone with emotions. A Mother is certainly the most important human being in everyone’s life. Mother’s Love for her child certainly cannot be compared with anything. Her level of forgiveness is unmatchable. A Mother is capable of forgiving any wrongdoing. Mother is the most important woman in everyone’s life. A mother sacrifices her happiness for her child. No one else can care for their kids the way a Mother does. A Mother is great and does not need anyone like me explaining that. This essay on Mother is a small attempt to discover the greatness of a mother.
Importance of a Mother
First of all, Mothers are highly responsible women. They certainly play a very important role in the upbringing of a child. Most noteworthy, Mothers play a huge role in determining a child’s attitude. Whether a child will be good or evil in the future depends upon the Mother. The moral values taught by Mother probably play a huge role. Individuals often remember their Mother’s values until old age. Hence, the Mother is responsible for the well-being of society. The future of society in a large way is the result of a Mother’s teaching.
Mothers share a deep connection with their children. This connection certainly cannot be matched by anyone else. Even fathers fail to establish that type of understanding. The origins of this connection happen from infancy. Most noteworthy, a Mother can understand her infant child without communication. This certainly develops a strong emotional connection between a mother and child. This bond seems to carry into adult life. A Mother, it seems like, can always tell when we are feeling hungry.
Mothers also are the emotional backbone of the family. They support everyone’s feeling in a family. Family members can certainly tell their emotions to Mothers without worry. An individual can share almost any secret with Mother. This is because Mothers have a huge level of trust with their family. Furthermore, Mothers have an extremely forgiving nature. Hence, even wrongdoing can be shared with a Mother.
Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas
How to Support Mothers?
First of all, Mothers are precious gifts from God. Without mothers, life would certainly be dark and gloomy. Therefore, it is our duty to help and support our Mothers. One important way to do that is to help in chores. Individuals must try to do more household work. This would certainly reduce the burden of Mothers. Hence, this will also improve her health.
Another way of supporting Mothers is to speak words of affirmation.
Most noteworthy, a Mother’s heart is made of gold. A few words of acknowledgment would fill her heart with happiness. There are probably several ways of doing so. One way is to praise the meal cooked by her. Above all, such acknowledgment should come on a regular basis.
A Mother is a gem in everyone’s life. She is the ultimate source of happiness for a child. Her contributions are certainly too great to imagine. Above all, her love is pure and innocent. To find a Mother who does not love is probably an impossible task.
Read some awesome Essay Writing Tips here.
FAQs – Essay on Mother
Q.1 At what age a child forms an emotional connection with Mother?
A.1 A child forms an emotional connection with his mother from the age of infancy.
Q.2 Mention one way in which children can help their Mothers.
A.2 Children can help their Mothers by speaking words of acknowledgment. This is one way of certainly helping Mothers.
Mother’s Day 2023: When is it in the UK and why is it celebrated at different times globally?
Mother’s Day is fast approaching, but keeping up with the date can be tricky.
Not only does it land on a different date each year, but different countries around the world also celebrate it at different times.
But to make sure you can book a day out for your mum, or arrange for flowers and a card to be sent on time, it’s important to be prepared.
Here is everything you need to know about Mother’s Day 2023 and how it’s celebrated around the world.
When is Mother’s Day 2023 in the UK?
Unlike Christmas, Valentine’s Day and Halloween, Mothering Sunday falls on different dates in different countries every year.
This year, the UK will celebrate Mother’s Day on Sunday, March 19.
The UK date of this celebration is rooted in the Christian observance of Mothering Sunday.
Mothering Sunday takes place on the fourth Sunday in the festival of Lent, exactly three weeks before Easter Sunday.
This observance originated in the Middle Ages, when children who had left their families to work in domestic service were allowed to go to their home – or “mother” – church.
The journey home morphed into a spring occasion for families to reunite, which eventually adopted the custom of children picking flowers on the way home as a gift to their mothers.
The date also became a celebration as the fasting rules of Lent were relaxed, earning the day the name of Refreshment Sunday, Simnel Sunday – after the simnel cakes traditionally baked on the day – and Pudding Pie Sunday to some.
How did Mothering Sunday become Mother’s Day?
Mother’s Day began in America in 1907.
Anna Jarvis, the daughter of a peace activist who treated wounded soldiers in the American Civil War, campaigned for a day to honour the role played by mothers.
The idea gained such traction that, by 1911, all US states took on the holiday, and it was declared a national holiday by President Woodrow Wilson in 1914.
Eventually, this tradition reached the UK, and Mothering Sunday became more popularly known as Mother’s Day.
Why is Mother’s Day celebrated at different times around the world?
Mother’s Day has become more secular and commercialised and is now celebrated globally.
Some countries gave it a religious meaning – which has been gradually lost over the years.
In other countries, the date is based on seasons or times of the year.
Whilst Nigeria joins the UK and Ireland in celebrating mothers on the fourth Sunday of Lent, most countries around the world follow America’s lead in celebrating the holiday on the second Sunday in May, which this year is May 14.
Others still – including Russia, Vietnam and Afghanistan – mark the occasion on International Women’s Day on March 8.
In France, the festivity is traditionally celebrated on the last Sunday of May but it is moved to the first Sunday of June if it coincides with Pentecost day,
When is Father’s Day 2023?
In the UK, Father’s Day 2023 falls on Sunday, June 18.
The celebration of fatherhood is always held on the third Sunday of June.
It is thought the festival may have originated in pagan sun worship, with some branches of the religion seeing the Sun as the father of the universe.
10 BENEFITS OF READING BOOKS: WHY YOU SHOULD READ EVERY DAY
- 1What Are the Benefits of Reading Books?
- 1. Gain Valuable Knowledge
- 2. Exercise Your Brain
- 3. Improve Your Focus
- 4. Improve Your Memory
- 5. Enjoy Entertainment
- 6. Improve Your Ability to Empathize
- 7. Improve Your Communication Skills
- 8. Reduce Stress
- 9. Improve Your Mental Health
- 10. Live Longer
There are so many benefits to reading books.
But let’s face it: It can be challenging to motivate ourselves to read a 382-page book when we can watch the movie, listen to the audiobook, or watch a YouTube video summary instead.
Am I right?
However, if most of your daily reading consists of social media posts, text messages, and news headlines, you’re missing out.
So, what are the benefits of reading books?
If you’re interested in reading more books but need some motivation, this article’s for you. After all, when you understand the importance of reading books, you’re more likely to do it.
What Are the Benefits of Reading Books?
Here are 10 benefits of reading that illustrate the importance of reading books. When you read every day you:
- Gain valuable knowledge
- Exercise your brain
- Improve your focus
- Improve your memory
- Enjoy entertainment
- Improve your ability to empathize
- Improve your communication skills
- Reduce stress
- Improve your mental health
- Live longer
Now, let’s dive a little deeper to better understand the advantages of reading.
1. Gain Valuable Knowledge
One of the most obvious benefits of reading every day is learning.
And unlike a YouTube video or podcast, books provide access to in-depth knowledge. In other words, if you want to become more productive, which do you think you’ll learn more from:
- A book by someone who’s studied productivity for 20 years,
- Or a 10-minute YouTube video by someone interested in the topic?
Which do you think you’ll absorb more from? Which do you think is more likely to help change your habits? Books, of course!
Going beyond the surface of a subject is essential to success, too. This is probably why the author Roald Dahl once said, “If you are going to get anywhere in life, you have to read a lot of books.”
Present Simple or Present Continuous?
- Please be quiet! I (work) now!
- It (not rain) at the moment.
- This shop (open) at eight and (close) at six.
- She always (go) to school by bike.
- Pst! The baby (sleep).
- Tom always (get up) early in the morning.
- Look! Peter (juggle).
- They (have) their lunch at the moment.
- She often (eat) meat.
- I rarely (go) to bed before midnight.
- Pit (smoke) 19 cigarettes a day.
- Jack never (have) breakfast in the morning.
- Look! Somebody (swim) in the cold river.
- What you (do) now? I (listen) to music!
- She usually (wear) black clothes.
- Ann often (play) tennis.
- Listen! The boy (sing) a nice song.
- The earth (move) aroung the sun.
- Ice (melt) in the sun.
- Sandy (be) always late.
Choose at, in, on to complete the sentences.
1 See you .. Friday.
2I brush my teeth oninat the morning.
3The match is … 4 o’clock.
4We have lunch …. midday.
5I’m busy …. the moment.
6My parents always visit me …. my birthday.
7He was born ….. the 19th century
8He usually goes on holiday… July
9They always get together …. Christmas.
10 You can come….. the weekend.
Put the verbs into the correct form.
- I (to listen) to music every day.
- Simon (to collect) stamps.
- We (to wash) the dishes once a day.
- My mother always (to make) breakfast.
- Sarah usually (to meet) Maria at the tennis club.
Form of Affirmative Sentences – Part 2
Put the verbs into the correct form.
- Mr Williams often (to teach) the dogs new tricks.
- They always (to throw) their litter in the bin.
- The referee usually (to stop) the game after 90 minutes.
- The kids (to hurry) to open their presents.
- This car can (to do) 250 km/h.
Questions and Answers
- 1. John’s mom ________ him home from school most days.
- A. Drived
- B. Driving
- C. Drive
- D. Drives
- 2. One day last year John ___________ for his mom at the front door.
- A. Will wait
- B. Wait
- C. Waited
- D. Did wait
- 3. Just before he got there, a tree branch ________ down on the car.
- A. Will crash
- B. Crash
- C. Crashed
- D. Crashing
- 4. The branch __________ John’s mom inside the car.
- A. Trap
- B. Trapped
- C. Will trap
- D. Shall trap
- 5. The firefighters _____________ her.
- A. Rescued
- B. Will rescued
- C. Rescue
- D. Rescuing
- 6. John’s mom ___________ insurance money for the car next month.
- A. Collected
- B. Will collect
- C. Collect
- D. Collecting
- 7. During the last Ice Age, glaciers ____________ Canada.
- A. Will cover
- B. Covering
- C. Cover
- D. Covered
- 8. Many animals _______ in the cold.
- A. Will die
- B. Died
- C. Dying
- D. Die
- 9. Today many scientists _________ another change.
- A. Predict
- B. Predicted
- C. Will predict
- D. Shall predict
- 10. Our climate ________________ much warmer.
- A. Becomes
- B. Will become
- C. Became
- D. Become
- 11. The ice caps _____________.
- A. Melted
- B. Melting
- C. Will melt
- D. Have melt
- 12. Ocean levels ______________.
- A. Rose
- B. Will rise
- C. Rising
- D. Risen
- 13. Millons of people ___________________ their homes.
- A. Will lose
- B. Lost
- C. Are losing
- D. Lose
- 14. No one _______ the future for sure, of course.
- A. Knew
- B. Will know
- C. Shall know
- D. Knows
- 15. This is ___________ global warming.
- A. Calling
- B. Calls
- C. Called
- D. Call
This easy pancake recipe doesn’t require much thought early in the morning and the pancakes taste great!
- 1 cup all-purpose flour
- 2 tablespoons white sugar
- 2 teaspoons baking powder
- 1 teaspoon salt, or to taste
- 1 cup milk
- 2 tablespoons vegetable oil
- 1 egg, beaten
Combine flour, sugar, baking powder, and salt in a large bowl. Make a well in the center, and pour in milk, oil, and egg. Mix until smooth.
Heat a lightly oiled griddle or frying pan over medium-high heat. Pour or scoop batter onto the griddle, using approximately 1/4 cup for each pancake; cook until bubbles form and the edges are dry, 1 to 2 minutes. Flip and cook until browned on the other side. Repeat with remaining batter.
Which animals do you see in the town or city where you live?
Animals in the city
Which animals can you see in cities? This article tells you about more than just dogs and cats!
One night in December 2011, a bear came into the city of Vancouver in Canada. It walked through the city streets past houses, shops and offices. Then it found some food in bins outside a restaurant and started eating. In the morning, someone saw the bear and called the police. The police came with a vet from the city zoo. They put the bear in a lorry and took it to the mountains outside the city. Luckily, the bear was safe. But what happens in other countries when big animals come into cities? In Vancouver it is unusual to see a bear, but in some cities you can see big animals on the city streets every day.
Big animals usually come into cities to find food. In Cape Town in South Africa baboons come into the city when they are hungry. They go into gardens and eat fruit from trees. They even go into houses and take food from cupboards and fridges! Baboons are strong animals and they can scare people. But the city can be dangerous for baboons too. Sometimes, cars and buses kill baboons in accidents. Human food is very bad for the baboons’ teeth because it has a lot of sugar. Now, there are Baboon Monitors working in Cape Town. Their job is to find baboons in the city and return them to the countryside.
In Berlin in Germany, pigs sometimes come into the city to look for food. They eat flowers and plants in parks and gardens. Sometimes they eat vegetables from gardens and they walk in the street and cause accidents. Some people like the pigs and they give them food and water to drink. Other people do not like the pigs and they want the government and the police to stop them entering the city.
In Moscow in Russia, there are 35,000 wild dogs. The dogs live in parks, old houses, markets and train stations. Some dogs live in groups and others live alone. Many people in Moscow like the dogs. They give them food and water. Some people make small houses for the dogs in their gardens. This helps the dogs in winter, when the temperature in Moscow is -10 ºC and there is a lot of snow and ice.
Many animals live in cities. In some cities, you can see birds, insects, mice and squirrels every day. But sometimes, it is dangerous when big animals come into cities to find food. We need to find ways of stopping animals coming into the city without hurting them.
Murphy Unit 10
LEARN ENGLISH THROUGH FILMS / ՍՈՎՈՐՈՒՄ ԵՆՔ ԱՆԳԼԵՐԵՆ ՖԻԼՄԵՐԻ ՄԻՋՈՑՈՎ
Characters who changed the world
Who are the people throughout history who have made a difference in this world?
In this list, I have chosen people who have made a difference to the world in a positive way. They include people from the fields of politics, science, religion, humanitarianism and culture.
Abraham Lincoln (1809–1865) Abraham Lincoln overcame many setbacks to become the most influential American President. In his famous Gettysburg speech, he inspired the nation with his noble words and helped to bring about the abolition of slavery.
Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790) Great polymath and promoter of American ideals at home and for the country. A practical man of great dynamism and good character.
Mikhail Gorbachev (1931–2022) Had the courage, tenacity and strength of character to give up the absolute power of Soviet Communism. Moved the Soviet Union to democracy and respect for human rights. Gorbachev enabled the Berlin Wall to come down giving freedom to Eastern Europe.
Jesus Christ (c.5BC–30AD) Spiritual Teacher and inspiration of Christianity. Taught a message of love, forgiveness and faith. Born in a turbulent period of Roman rule, after his crucifixion, his message inspired millions around the world.
William Wilberforce (1759–1833) Fought tirelessly for ending the slave trade, at a time when many accepted it as an ‘economic necessity’. He awakened the conscience of many of his fellow countryman and made slavery appear unacceptable.
Nelson Mandela (1918–2013) Campaigned for justice and freedom in his country South Africa. Mandela, spent 27 years in jail for his opposition to apartheid. On release, he healed the wounds of apartheid by his magnanimous attitude to his former political enemies.
Albert Einstein (1879–1955) Einstein’s theories of relativity were a very significant scientific breakthrough. As well as being a genius scientist, Einstein was also a champion of human rights and campaigned for a more peaceful world.
Marie Curie (1867–1934) Marie Curie was awarded a Nobel Prize for both Chemistry and Physics. Her discoveries with radiation helped advance medical science. Also, her achievements were even more remarkable at a time when few women were allowed the opportunity for higher education.
It’s interesting to know:
Films and entertainment
Look at the magazine article and do the exercises to practise and improve your reading skills.
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Language level: A2 English level (pre-intermediate)