Մանկավարժական աշխատողները մարտի 16-20-ի համար նախատեսված ուսումնական պարապմունքները ամբողջությամբ տեղափոխել են մեդիակրթության հարթակներ՝ հրապարակելով առցանց ուսուցման ամեն օրվա նախագծերը.
What makes you happy?
Do you know what makes you happy or do you just think you know? At first, these two questions look the same. If you think something makes you happy, then it makes you happy. You know yourself, don’t you?
Write a list of all the things that make you happy. How many of them are fun? Most of them? So, if you spend your time doing all these fun things, you’ll be really happy, won’t you?
Well, maybe not. For most people, fun isn’t enough for real happiness. Paul Dolan wrote a book called Happiness by Design. He thinks happiness comes from both pleasure and purpose. If most of the things on your list are about pleasure, that is what you think makes you happy. But you also need activities with purpose.
We usually know if something is fun, but we don’t know what brings meaning. For example, most people think air pilots have jobs with clear purpose. They fly hundreds of people all over the world. But they spend a lot of time in boring hotels and airports and they do the same things hundreds of times. Those activities might not bring meaning – and they’re probably not fun. So pilots also need to find pleasure and purpose in their work and life.
There are different ways we can find purpose in things. Some activities might be motivating because they work for the good of people and the world around us. Or what you do might help a team you’re working in.
If you’re a student, your ‘job’ is studying and passing exams. It’s easy to do well in subjects you like, but subjects you don’t like are less motivating. They’re not fun for you, but you have to study them so you need to find purpose. An A in a subject you hate won’t help the world. But can you be part of a study team with friends? Each person can study one part until they understand it and then teach it to the rest of the group. The purpose becomes helping the team.
Go back to your list of things that make you happy. How many of them are activities that bring purpose? Can you add any? Remember, some activities might bring both pleasure and purpose.
Now you need to design a happy life. Paul Dolan believes people should ‘decide, design, do’. First decide what brings you pleasure and/or purpose – that means your two lists. Then, don’t just think about these activities, fill your life with them. For example, you might love riding a bike but never have time to do it. So, ride to school or the library or the shops. If you live too far away, take your bike on the bus or train. Get off early and ride the rest of the way. If you go in the car, put it in the back, stop a few kilometres away and ride the rest. Or move somewhere you can ride more. Some parts of our lives are good or bad luck, but we can still design the rest to make more happiness.
Does your school have a good library?
Every year we go to Florida. We like to go to the beach.
My favorite beach is called Emerson Beach. It is very long, with soft sand and palm trees. It is very beautiful. I like to make sandcastles and watch the sailboats go by. Sometimes there are dolphins and whales in the water!
Every morning we look for shells in the sand. I found fifteen big shells last year. I put them in a special place in my room. This year I want to learn to surf. It is hard to surf, but so much fun! My sister is a good surfer. She says that she can teach me. I hope I can do it!
DID YOU UNDERSTAND THE TEXT?
Please answer the following questions of understanding:
What do you think about graffiti? Is it really art?
THE STORY OF STREET ART
Modern graffiti began in big cities in the United States in the 1970s. In New York, young people wrote their names, or ‘tags’, in pen on walls around the city.
One of the first ‘taggers’ was a teenager called Demetrius. His tag was TAKI 183. He wrote his tag on walls and in stations in New York. Other teenagers saw Demetrius’s tag and started writing their tags too. Soon, there were tags on walls, buses and trains all over New York.
Then, some teenagers started writing their tags with aerosol paint. Their tags were bigger and more colourful. Aerosol paint graffiti became very popular in the 1970s and 1980s. It appeared on trains, buses and walls around the world.
In the 1990s and 2000s, a lot of graffiti artists started painting pictures. Some artists’ pictures were about politics. Other artists wanted to make cities beautiful and painted big, colourful pictures on city walls.
GRAFFITI IN GALLERIES
In some countries, writing or painting on walls is a crime. Sometimes, graffiti artists have problems with the police. In other countries, artists can draw and paint in certain places. For example, in Taiwan, there are ‘graffiti zones’ where artists can paint on walls. In São Paulo in Brazil, street artists can paint pictures on walls and houses. Their pictures are colourful and beautiful. Some tourists visit São Paulo just to see the street art!
In Bristol in the UK, there is a street art festival in August every year. Artists paint all the buildings in a street. Lots of people come to watch the artists and take photos. You can see exhibitions of street art in some galleries too. There have been exhibitions of street art in galleries in Paris, London and Los Angeles.
WHO ARE THE ARTISTS?
Some street artists have become famous. Here are three stars of the street art world:
- Os Gêmeos are twin brothers from São Paulo. They paint big, colourful pictures of people on buildings. In 2007, they painted a castle in Scotland!
- Blek le Rat is from Paris. He is famous for painting pictures of homeless people in big cities.
- Faith47 is from Cape Town in South Africa. She paints big, colourful pictures of people and animals. She likes painting in different places and you can find her work on pavements, postboxes, buses and, of course, on walls!
THE FUTURE OF STREET ART
Many street artists use the internet to look at photos of street art from around the world. They communicate with other artists online and share ideas. Some street artists are famous and you can see their pictures in galleries. We don’t know about the future of street art, but it is here to stay for sure!